Microsoft has responded to the news that the "ransomware" virus dubbed WannaCry locked up more than 200,000 computers around the world.
Then there's the USA government, whose Windows hacking tools were leaked to the internet and got into the hands of cybercriminals.
Smith says cyberweapons require a new approach, and governments must "consider the damage to civilians that comes from hoarding these vulnerabilities and the use of these exploits". "Still, the NSA can't be very proud of this".
Here are some of the key players in the attack and what may - or may not - be their fault.
The technology behemoth said that on 14 March it had released a security update to patch vulnerability, however many computers globally remained unpatched. The agency used its Facebook page and Twitter handle as well as the MyGov platform to spread the word, Bahl said. Brad Smith, Microsoft's top lawyer, criticized US intelligence agencies for "stockpiling" software code that can be used by hackers. He says the attack "provides yet another example of why the stockpiling of vulnerabilities by governments is such a problem", noting that, earlier this year, WikiLeaks posted vulnerabilities that had been stored by the Central Intelligence Agency.
The ACLU, meanwhile, urged Congress to pass a law requiring the government to disclose vulnerabilities to companies "in a timely manner", so that they can patch them as soon as possible.
Microsoft distributed the patch two months ago, which could have forestalled much of the attack, but in many organizations it was likely lost among the blizzard of updates and patches that large corporations and governments strain to manage.
"We have 32 empanelled auditors who carry out technical audits, which help organisations fix (cybersecurity) gaps", he said, adding that CERT-In has conducted training and awareness sessions for government administrators and CEOs.
Smith wrote that his company was obligated to take responsibility for addressing vulnerabilities when they are made known, as Microsoft did in this case.
Microsoft, for instance, ended support and the issuance of security patches for their operating system (OS) Windows XP in 2014.
Mikko Hypponen, chief research officer at a Helsinki-based cyber security company called F-Secure, told news agency AFP that Russian Federation and India were hit particularly hard, largely because Microsoft's Windows XP - one of the operating systems most at risk - was still widely used in the countries.
Pankit Desai, co-founder and chief executive officer at cyber security start-up Sequretek, said India's unorganised sector may have escaped dire consequences so far, but the attack is ongoing. No company - or hospital, or university, or individual - asks to be the victim of cybercrime, but there are also things companies can do to prevent the attacks from succeeding.
Using antivirus software will at least protect you from the most basic, well-known viruses by scanning your system against the known fingerprints of these pests.
"It's not rocket science", Litan said.
The malicious code, which was transmitted rapidly around the world on Friday, took advantage of a flaw in commonly used software - in this case, the Windows operating system. This weekend's virus was particularly virulent, because it could spread to all other computers on a network even if just one user clicked a bad link or attachment.
None of this points to Microsoft's current operating system, Windows 10, being more susceptible to malware than Apple's macOS or OS X. In fact, the real reason hackers and criminals attack Windows is that it's the most popular desktop operating system in the world.
They exploited a ideal storm of factors - the Windows hole, the ability to get ransom paid in digital currency, poor security practices - but it's unclear if the payoff, at least so far, was worth the trouble.
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